The efficacy of various political institutions is the subject of intense debate between proponents of broad legislative standards enforced through litigation and those who prefer regulation by administrative agencies. This book explores the trade-offs between litigation and regulation, the circumstances in which one approach may outperform the other, and the principles that affect the choice between addressing particular economic activities with one system or the other. Combining theoretical analysis with empirical investigation in a range of industries, including public health, financial markets, medical care, and workplace safety, Regulation versus Litigation sheds light on the costs and benefits of two important instruments of economic policy.
Based on a wide array of data collected by the author, this book uses clear theoretically motivated economic analysis to explain the structure, performance, and influence of universal banks and securities markets on firms during industrialisation. The German universal banks played a significant but not overwhelming role in the ownership and control of corporate firms. Banks gained access to boards via a confluence of their underwriting and brokerage activities, the legal phenomena of bearer shares and deposited voting rights, and the flourishing securities markets of the turn of the twentieth century. In general, bank relationships had little impact on firm performance; stock market listings, or ownership structure, were more important. The findings show that securities markets can thrive within a civil-law, universal-bank system and suggest that financial system complexity can favour rapid industrial expansion.
Bayesian methods are increasingly being used in the social sciences, as the problems encountered lend themselves so naturally to the subjective qualities of Bayesian methodology. This book provides an accessible introduction to Bayesian methods, tailored specifically for social science students. It contains lots of real examples from political science, psychology, sociology, and economics, exercises in all chapters, and detailed descriptions of all the key concepts, without assuming any background in statistics beyond a first course. It features examples of how to implement the methods using WinBUGS - the most-widely used Bayesian analysis software in the world - and R - an open-source statistical software. The book is supported by a Website featuring WinBUGS and R code, and data sets.
What is a medical practice worth? The answer depends, in part, on whom you ask. Purchasers would say value is based on what they plan to bring to the table; sellers assume it's simply a matter of formula applied uniformly across the board. In actuality, both are correct--to a degree. While there are basic guidelines used to ascertain values, valuation must be determined on a case-by-case basis, as each has a unique set of circumstances that ultimately affects final outcome. Covering the specific issues that impact valuation, Valuation of a Medical Practice takes you through the entire process, highlighting pitfalls and mistakes that are commonly made and that should be avoided. Written by Reed Tinsley, Rhonda Sides, and Gregory D. Anderson, leading experts in the field, this comprehensive resource clears up the ambiguous question of what exactly constitutes the value of a medical practice. As the authors stress, there are two main points to keep in mind:
* The strength of the practice's income stream and what it produces for the owner(s) is what creates true value.
* The key to a successful valuation is deciding whether or not the practice's future income stream will mirror its present income stream.
Along with case examples, sample valuation letters, and checklists for gathering data, as well as an exhaustive appendix and glossary of terms, Valuation of a Medical Practice has complete details on:
* Regulatory issues--Medicare fraud and abuse, private benefit/private inurement, the Stark Law.
* Special issues--gross revenues, referral patterns, payer mix, practice efficiencies and transition, productivity.
* Getting started--engagement preplanning and planning, requesting pertinent data.
* On-site inspection and owner interview--fixed assets, personnel, accounting system, supply inventory, marketing, physician and management issues.
* Completing the process--reporting, reviews, reconciling valuation methods, applying premiums and discounts, obtaining client representations.
Straightforward, accessible, and exhaustive, this is an important resource for anyone involved in the valuation of a medical practice. When it comes to valuing a medical practice, the parties involved often disagree on how it should be best assessed. Written by leading authorities in the field, this comprehensive resource clears up any confusion by examining and explaining the key issues involved in the valuation process, as well as common pitfalls and mistakes that should be avoided. Packed with sample valuation engagement letters, checklists for gathering data, and helpful case studies, Valuation of a Medical Practice covers all the essential bases, from regulatory issues and operating costs to capitalization and fixed assets--in short, everything needed for an accurate valuation.
Nonparametric function estimation with stochastic data, otherwise known as smoothing, has been studied by several generations of statisticians. Assisted by the recent availability of ample desktop and laptop computing power, smoothing methods are now finding their ways into everyday data analysis by practitioners. While scores of methods have proved successful for univariate smoothing, ones practical in multivariate settings number far less. Smoothing spline ANOVA models are a versatile family of smoothing methods derived through roughness penalties that are suitable for both univariate and multivariate problems.
This one-of-a-kind book provides an in-depth analysis of nursing practice as a concept and area of study, rather than as an aggregation of specific techniques and skills. The text addresses the essential features of nursing practice using a five-level nursing framework developed by the author. This framework promotes a deep understanding of how nursing should be holistically practiced rather than focusing on particular nursing competencies. The book stresses the importance of developing a multifaceted, adaptable approach to nursing that integrates all of its complexities, including philosophy, knowledge and knowing, and situational contingencies. Also addressed are the integral components of nursing practice, including essential tools, collaboration, knowledge application, competence, expertise, and quality of practice.
The book discusses and analyzes the five levels of nursing practice√>=the nursing perspective, nursing knowledge for practice, the philosophy of nursing practice, the dimension of nursing practice, and the process of nursing practice√>=to provide a model for how nursing should be practiced in order to better serve patients and advance knowledge for practice. With its in-depth perspective and unique focus, the book draws from nursing knowledge, but also from the fields of philosophy and the social sciences. As such, it analyzes the essential features and characteristics of nursing practice through a broader lens. The book also includes a comprehensive bibliography from nursing, philosophy, and social sciences literature. It is designed as both a text for graduate-level nursing students and as an authoritative reference for practicing nurses, educators, and researchers.
- Presents a five-level analytical model of nursing practice developed by the author
- Provides an in-depth examination of the essential features and dimensions of nursing practice using this analytical model
- Addresses the essential tools of nursing practice; collaborative practice, knowledge application, and competence; expertise; and quality of practice
- Includes a comprehensive bibliography relevant to the study of nursing practice from nursing, philosophy, and the social sciences
This volume offers a survey and overview of world history, starting with the earliest-known human settlements and concluding in 1500--the early years of Europe's Renaissance, and in the Americas, the era of the Aztec and Inca empires. Following a summary of prehistoric cultures, the author covers the civilizations of the Fertile Crescent, ancient Egypt, civilization in the Indus and Yellow River valleys, early Mediterranean cultures, India's classical age, the rise of China's dynasties, classical Greek and Roman civilizations, the Islamic world, African kingdoms of the first millenium, Europe's middle ages, the Holy Roman Empire, the Crusaders and their clash with Turks, the Mongol invasion, and the humanism of the early European Renaissance
Going beyond previous investigations into urban land use and travel, Petter N ss presents new research from Denmark on residential location and travel to show how and why urban spatial structures affect people's travel behaviour.
In a comprehensive case study of the Copenhagen metropolitan area, N ss combines traditional quantitative travel surveys with qualitative interviews in order to identify the more detailed mechanisms through which urban structure affects travel behaviour. The case study findings are compared with those from other Nordic countries and analyzed and evaluated in the light of relevant theory and literature to provide solid, valuable conclusions for planning sustainable urban development.
With a broader range of statistics than previous studies and conclusions of international relevance, Urban Structure Matters provides well-grounded conclusions for how spatial planning of urban areas can be used to reduce car dependence and achieve a more sustainable development of cities.
In several proofs from the theory of finite-dimensional Lie algebras, an essential contribution comes from the Jordan canonical structure of linear maps acting on finite-dimensional vector spaces. On the other hand, there exist classical results concerning Lie algebras which advise us to use infinite-dimensional vector spaces as well. For example, the classical Lie Theorem asserts that all finite-dimensional irreducible representations of solvable Lie algebras are one-dimensional. Hence, from this point of view, the solvable Lie algebras cannot be distinguished from one another, that is, they cannot be classified. Even this example alone urges the infinite-dimensional vector spaces to appear on the stage. But the structure of linear maps on such a space is too little understood; for these linear maps one cannot speak about something like the Jordan canonical structure of matrices. Fortunately there exists a large class of linear maps on vector spaces of arbi- trary dimension, having some common features with the matrices. We mean the bounded linear operators on a complex Banach space. Certain types of bounded operators (such as the Dunford spectral, Foia decomposable, scalar generalized or Colojoara spectral generalized operators) actually even enjoy a kind of Jordan decomposition theorem. One of the aims of the present book is to expound the most important results obtained until now by using bounded operators in the study of Lie algebras.