This study examines the forces that made the nude a contentious image in the early Third Republic. Analyzing the evolving relationship between the fine art nude, print culture, and censorship, Heather Dawkins explores how artists, art critics, politicians, bureaucrats, lawyers, and judges evaluated the nude. She reveals how spectatorship of the nude was refracted through the ideals of art, femininity, republican liberty, and public decency. Dawkins also investigates how women reshaped private perception of the nude to accommodate their own experience and subjectivity.
The Paris of the 1860s and 1870s was supposedly a brand-new city, equipped with boulevards, caf s, parks, and suburban pleasure grounds--the birthplace of those habits of commerce and leisure that constitute modern life. Questioning those who view Impressionism solely in terms of artistic technique, T. J. Clark describes the painting of Manet, Degas, Seurat, and others as an attempt to give form to that modernity and seek out its typical representatives--be they bar-maids, boaters, prostitutes, sightseers, or petits bourgeois lunching on the grass. The central question of The Painting of Modern Life is this: did modern painting as it came into being celebrate the consumer-oriented culture of the Paris of Napoleon III, or open it to critical scrutiny? The revised edition of this classic book includes a new preface by the author.