Central to the Enlightenment is the ideal of the Secular City, in militant reply to the Civitas Dei of St Augustine. The essays in this volume, all by distinguished eighteenth century specialists, illustrate the elaboration of that vision, both in the planning and depiction of actual cities and in the speculation on social justice to which Voltaire in particular devoted himself. Yet even in him, secularization is never total, and the persistence of a displaced religious, even messianic strain in the Enlightenment is also illustrated in a variety of writers, culminating in the contradictions of the French Revolution.
" The authors] have penned a celebration of settlement archaeology for the 1990s. The book is written in a lively and engaging style, which is a tribute both to the authors and to the translator, and it maintains a clear, concise, and thorough analytical organization. This volume should serve as a beacon for future research on the promising horizon of landscape archaeology." --Matthew L. Murray, American Journal of Archaeology
"A pioneering exploration of the transformation of Europe's landscape, this valuable contribution will delight scholars and specialists." --Choice
..". excellent survey... " --American Historical Review
"For anyone seeking an introduction to the settlement archaeology of later prehistoric Europe, or even a detailed discussion of many inricate technicalities, this book is the best place to start. It is an excellent work of synthetic scholarship... " --Journal of Field Archaeology
Though the Romans portrayed the Celts as barbarians, archaeological inquiry has revealed that the period before the Roman conquest in Celtic Europe was one of great technological, social, and economic progress. This book is a well-illustrated overview of the Celtic world at a time of rapid advancement that produced a remarkable level of cultural unity in a vast region stretching from the Danube to the Atlantic coasts.
A comprehensive examination of the rituals and philosophies that created and sustained medieval troubadour culture- Debunks the myth of the platonic nature of courtly love, showing the many sexual similarities to the Tantric practices of India - Reveals how the roots of courtly love go back to the matriarchal cultures of neolithic times The widespread turmoil that shook Western Europe as it entered the new millennium with the year 1000 prompted a vast reevaluation of the chief tenets of society. Foremost among these was a new way of looking at love and the place held by women in society. The Christian-inspired tradition that at best viewed women with contempt--and often with outright fear and loathing--was replaced by a new perspective, one in which women enjoyed a central role as the inspiration for all male action. For several hundred years courtly love, with its emphasis on adultery, carnal pleasures, and the power of the feminine, dominated European culture despite its flouting of conventional Christian morality. Medieval historians by and large have tended to regard courtly love as a sterile parlor game for the upper classes. To the contrary, Jean Markale shows that the stakes were much higher: the roots of the ritual re-created here go all the way back to the great mother goddess. In addition, the platonic nature attributed to these relationships is based on a misunderstanding of courtly love; underneath the refined poetry of the troubadours' verses flourished a system of sexual initiation that rivaled Indian Tantra.
One of our Most Brilliant public intellectuals, Paul Berman has spent his career writing on revolutionary movements and their totalitarian aspects. Here he argues that, in the terror war, we are not facing a battle of the West against Islam--a clash of civilizations. We are facing, instead, the same battle that tore apart Europe during most of the twentieth century, only in a new version. It is the clash of liberalism and its enemies--the battle between freedom and totalitarianism that arose in Europe many years ago and spread to the Muslim world. The author considers the wars against fascism and communism from the past, and draws cautionary lessons. But he also draws from those past experiences a liberal program for the present--a program that departs in fundamental respects from the policies of the Bush administration.
Since the sixteenth century, the Spanish Inquisition has been synonymous with terror, bigotry, and persecution. In this book, a renowned historian sweeps away old misconceptions and presents a new view of this notorious and fascinating period.
Henry Kamen reassesses the significance and consequences of the expulsion of the Jews and also argues that there is little evidence for the alleged Jewishness of the conversos who were the Inquisition's first victims. He presents a major revision of the impact of blood purity prejudices on Spanish society, revises the figures given for execution of heretics by the tribunal, and examines the amount of Spanish persecution in the context of executions in neighboring countries. He gives a completely new picture of the infamous censorship system, showing it to be much less effective than is often presented, and he investigates the role played by foreign propaganda in the creation of the diabolic image of the Inquisition. Kamen reconstructs the atmosphere of fear and oppression that typified the period, relating it to the fear generated by community tensions. He also demonstrates for the first time that the famous auto-da-fe was not a product of traditional Spanish piety but a deliberate tool of the inquisitors, invented in the sixteenth century in order to boost their political standing.
Thirty-five years ago Kamen wrote a study of the Inquisition that received high praise. This present work, based on over thirty years of new research, is not simply a complete revision of the earlier book. Innovative in its presentation, point of view, information, and themes, it will revolutionize further study in the field.
"An excellent, up-to-date overview ofthe Spanish Inquisition. It is certainly the best book on the subject currently available in English". -- Geoffrey Parker
The diverse topics of the articles in this volume represent many disciplines and range, chronologically, from the Middle Ages to the most recent years. Topics include literature, political science, history, art history, language, sociology and civilization. Co-published with the American Association for Netherlandic Studies.
In the period between the Renaissance and the French Revolution, the court was paramount in European political and cultural life. It was not only the princes' place of residence, it functioned as the seat of government, the stage for factional and dynastic rivalries, and often as a major source of artistic patronage. Explore twelve of the great European courts. Learn how these households were run, how the architecture of their palaces and gardens was adapted to the routines of courtly life, what role the courts played in the princes' relations with the wider community of the realm, and how magnificence and ritual were deployed to political ends. It's a lavish introduction to a vanished world. 352 pages, 80 color illus., 70 b/w illus., 7 3/4 x 10 1/2. NEW IN PAPERBACK