Thinking and memory are inextricably linked. However, a "divide and rule" approach has led cognitive psychologists to study these two areas in relative isolation. With contributions from some of the leading international researchers on working memory and thinking, the present volume aims to break down the scientific divisions and foster scientific integration in the connections between these two core functions of cognition. Broadly defined, thinking comprises mentally driven change in current representations. The processes involved in such change include application of logical rules, heuristics, problem solving strategies, decision making, planning and comprehension of complex material. Memory involves the encoding, retention and retrieval of information, and the retention may be temporary or in a long-term knowledge base.; Thinking cannot occur in a vacuum; it relies on the long-term memory base and a temporary mental workspace. Despite the apparent limitations on mental workspace, humans can drive a car and hold a conversation, or store partial solutions while tackling other aspects of a problem. So too, some aspects of thinking are relatively resilient in the face of quite extensive brain damage, yet other aspects are remarkably vulnerable to neuroanatomical insults. Humans can solve complex problems with many alternative choice points and yet seem to be able to consider only a few hypotheses at any one time. These apparent paradoxes present significant scientific challenges as to how humans can be such successful thinkers despite their very limited working memory. The chapters herein represent a diversity of views as regards the nature or working memory and forms of human thinking. The links between working memory and thinking are directly addressed and made explicit, and in so doing this volume offers an increasingly integrated understanding of human thinking and memory.
In this distinguished collection the deeper cognitive aspects of writing systems are for the first time added to the perceptual and physiological dimensions and brought into a coherent whole. The result is a multifaceted understanding of alphabets and other scripts in which none of the major factors that shape those systems, and thus distinctively reveal attributes of the human mind, are slighted. The systems through which language is realized on the page are compared in nature and complexity with those through which language is realized as sound, and are seen in their true perspective. Long the object of intensive inquiry, the process of change in phonological systems is now joined to the evolution of graphological systems, and new light is cast on the nature of the relevant human cognitive processes in their diversity and underlying unity. The authors, each eminently qualified in his or her field, are drawn from Europe, Asia, and North and South America.
Most general knowledge about the brain and its workings is very dated, drawing on studies from the first part of the previous century or even earlier. However, the advent of brain scanning which allows the study of the ordinary working brain, rather than just dead ones or people having brain surgery, has resulted in some amazing new developments that contribute immensely to our general social understanding of people and how they work.
Written by Dr. Nicky Hayes, bestselling author of Understand Psychology, Your Brain and You is a beginner's guide to neuropsychology. It takes you through every aspect of how your brain works, from nervous systems and brain structures to neural transmission and neural correlates. You will discover how it all began, how it works, howe we see, do things, hear and experience the outside world. Explore memories, relationships, emotions, decision-making, sleep, consciousness and common disorders such as dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia.
As with all Teach Yourself books, it is clearly structured, packed full of practical examples, and designed to make it easy to learn the essentials you really need to know.
At first glance, issues like economic inequality, healthcare, climate change, and abortion seem unrelated. However, when thinking and talking about them, people reliably fall into two camps: conservative and liberal. What explains this divide? Why do conservatives and liberals hold the positions they do? And what is the conceptual nature of those who decide elections, commonly called the "political middle"?
The answers are profound. They have to do with how our minds and brains work. Political attitudes are the product of what cognitive scientists call Embodied Cognition -- the grounding of abstract thought in everyday world experience. Clashing beliefs about how to run nations largely arise from conflicting beliefs about family life: conservatives endorse a strict father and liberals a nurturant parent model. So-called "middle" voters are not in the middle at all. They are morally biconceptual, divided between both models, and as a result highly susceptible to moral political persuasion.
In this brief introduction, Lakoff and Wehling reveal how cognitive science research has advanced our understanding of political thought and language, forcing us to revise common folk theories about the rational voter.
Traditional psychiatry, psychotherapy, and pastoral counseling ... many Christian parents have tried these methods to help their troubled tweens, teens, and young adults, but have found that nothing works. These parents are frustrated, feel criticized by their church community, and no one seems to understand their teen with caregivers providing outdated advice. In Your Teen's Miraculous Brain, Dr. Nina Farley-Bates combines Christian principles and scientific methodology to bring relief to struggling families, gleaning from her twenty years of experience to help teens thrive. She walks parents through how to make eight essential changes, sharing valuable information to improve teens' brains, including what parents need to know to launch their teen into a better adulthood, how teens can get more restful sleep, and more. With Dr. Farley-Bates's help, parents watch their teens take quantum leaps into a more successful future, make lasting positive changes in their life, and become the hands that productively rock their world.