Cognitive Mapping and Other Spatial Processes
Hardcover ISBN: 080185993x
The metaphor of a "cognitive map"has attracted wide interest since it was first proposed in the late 1940s. Researchers from fields as diverse as psychology, geography, and urban planning have explored how humans process and use spatial information, often with the view of explaining why people make wayfinding errors or what makes one person a better navigator than another. Cognitive psychologists have broken navigation down into its component steps and shown it to be an interplay of neurocognitive functions, such as "spatial updating"and "reference frames"or "perception-action couplings."But there has also been an intense debate among biologists over whether animals have cognitive maps or have other forms of internal spatial representations that allow them to behave as if they did. Yet until now, little has been done to relate research on human and non-human subjects in this area. In Wayfinding Behavior: Cognitive Mapping and Other Spatial Processes Reginald Golledge brings together a distinguished group of scholars to offer a unique and comprehensive survey of current research in these diverse fields. Among the common themes they discover is the psychologists' "black box"approach, in which the internal mechanisms of spatial perception and route planning are modeled or constructed, like metaphors, based on the behavioral evidence. Cognitive neuroscientists, on the other hand, have attempted to discover the neurocognitive basis for spatial behavior. (They have shown, for example, that damage in the hippocampus system invariably impairs the ability of animals and humans to learn about, remember, and navigate through environments, and studies in humans show that neurons in this system code for location, direction, and distance, thereby providing the elements needed for a mapping system.) Artificial intelligence and robotics theorists attempt to construct intelligent mapping systems using computer technology. In these areas, there is growing evidence that, as in human wayfinding processes, useful representations cannot be achieved without sacrificing completeness and precision. Wayfinding Behavior: Cognitive Mapping and Other Spatial Processes offers not only state-of-the-art knowledge about "wayfinding, "but also represents a point of departure for future interdisciplinary studies. "The more we know," concludes volume editor Reginald Golledge, "about how humans or other species can navigate, wayfind, sense, record and use spatial information, the more effective will be the building of future guidance systems, and the more natural it will be for human beings to understand and control those systems."
The New Cognitive Neuroscience
Paperback ISBN: 0028740858
How do our brains allow us to recognize objects and locate them accurately in space, use mental imagery to remember yesterday's breakfast, read, understand speech, learn to dance, and recall a new telephone number? Recent breakthroughs in brain scanning and computing techniques have allowed researchers to plumb the secrets of the healthy brain's operation; simultaneously, much new information has been learned about the nature and causes of neuropsychological deficits in animals and humans following various sorts of brain damage in different locations. In this first comprehensive, integrated, and accessible overview of recent insights into how the brain gives rise to mental activity, the authors explain the fundamental concepts behind and the key discoveries that draw on neural network computer models, brain scans, and behavioral studies. Drawing on this analysis, the authors also present an intriguing theory of consciousness. In addition, this paperback edition contains an epilogue in which the authors discuss the latest research on emotion and cognition and present new information on working memory.
Who's Who of the Brain
A Guide to Its Inhabitants, Where They Live and What They Do
1st Edition Paperback ISBN: 1843104709
This introduction to the brain and how it works is meant for general readers. The brain is described in terms of characters who live in specific places, and each character's role, location, structure, and functions are explained, as well as how they work together and what happens when problems occur. Nunn et al., who work in pediatric neuropsychiatry, clinical and health psychology, and child and adolescent psychiatry in Australia and Norway, incorporate brief case studies and illustrations. Annotation ©2008 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
Whose Mind Is It Anyway?
Get Out of Your Head and into Your Life
Paperback ISBN: 1101982632
Most of us spend our lives trailing after our minds, allowing our brains to take us in directions that are safe and secure, controlled and conformed. Your mind doesn't want you to take that new job, sign up for that pottery class, or ask someone out. It wants you to stay unemployed, unfulfilled, and single because it enjoys routine and is resistant to change, no matter how positive the change might be. But more often than not, that's not what you want. WHOSE MIND IS IT ANYWAY? will help readers learn how to separate what they want from what their brains want, and how to do less when their minds are trying to trick them into doing more. In a colorful, funny, and non-threatening way, it answers the difficult question of how to take control of our self-defeating behaviors. Filled with charming illustrations, this book will be the friendly voice in your head to counter your negative thoughts, and it will teach you how to finally be at peace with all that you are.
Why Everyone Else Is a Hypocrite
Evolution and the Modular Mind
Paperback ISBN: 0691154392
We're all hypocrites. Why? Hypocrisy is the natural state of the human mind. Robert Kurzban shows us that the key to understanding our behavioral inconsistencies lies in understanding the mind's design. The human mind consists of many specialized units designed by the process of evolution by natural selection. While these modules sometimes work together seamlessly, they don't always, resulting in impossibly contradictory beliefs, vacillations between patience and impulsiveness, violations of our supposed moral principles, and overinflated views of ourselves. This modular, evolutionary psychological view of the mind undermines deeply held intuitions about ourselves, as well as a range of scientific theories that require a "self" with consistent beliefs and preferences. Modularity suggests that there is no "I." Instead, each of us is a contentious "we"--a collection of discrete but interacting systems whose constant conflicts shape our interactions with one another and our experience of the world. In clear language, full of wit and rich in examples, Kurzban explains the roots and implications of our inconsistent minds, and why it is perfectly natural to believe that everyone else is a hypocrite.
The Wiley Handbook of Evolutionary Neuroscience
Paperback ISBN: 1119264782
Wisdom of Listening
Paperback ISBN: 0861713559
The author trains readers in the art of deep listening, leaning on the wisdom of Ram Dass and A. H. Brady to train readers how to open their ears and hearts in order to be rsponsive and fully present as they move through their lives, relationships, and jobs. Original.
Words and Rules
The Ingredients of Language
Paperback ISBN: 0465072704
"In Words and Rules, Steven Pinker answers questions about the miraculous human ability called language, and does it in the gripping, witty style of his other bestsellers. Here Pinker explains the myst"
Working Memory and Severe Learning Difficulties
Hardcover ISBN: 1848723628
"Working memory" is a term used to refer to the systems responsible for the temporary storage of information during the performance of cognitive tasks. The efficiency of working memory skills in children may place limitations on the learning and performance of educationally important skills such as reading, language comprehension and arithmetic. Originally published in 1992, this monograph considers the development of working memory skills in children with severe learning difficulties. These children have marked difficulties with a wide range of cognitive tasks. The studies reported show that they also experience profound difficulties in verbal working memory tasks. These memory problems are associated with a failure to rehearse information within an articulatory loop. Training the children to rehearse material is shown to help alleviate these problems. The implications of these studies for understanding normal memory development, and for models of the structure of working memory and its development are discussed. It is argued that the working memory deficits seen in people with severe learning difficulties may contribute to their difficulties on other cognitive tasks.