Logic
Sway: The Irresistible Pull of Irrational Behavior
Sway
The Irresistible Pull of Irrational Behavior
Paperback      ISBN: 0385530609
A fascinating journey into the hidden psychological influences that derail our decision-making, Sway will change the way you think about the way you think.

Why is it so difficult to sell a plummeting stock or end a doomed relationship? Why do we listen to advice just because it came from someone "important"? Why are we more likely to fall in love when there's danger involved? In Sway, renowned organizational thinker Ori Brafman and his brother, psychologist Rom Brafman, answer all these questions and more.

Drawing on cutting-edge research from the fields of social psychology, behavioral economics, and organizational behavior, Sway reveals dynamic forces that influence every aspect of our personal and business lives, including loss aversion (our tendency to go to great lengths to avoid perceived losses), the diagnosis bias (our inability to reevaluate our initial diagnosis of a person or situation), and the "chameleon effect" (our tendency to take on characteristics that have been arbitrarily assigned to us).

Sway introduces us to the Harvard Business School professor who got his students to pay $204 for a $20 bill, the head of airline safety whose disregard for his years of training led to the transformation of an entire industry, and the football coach who turned conventional strategy on its head to lead his team to victory. We also learn the curse of the NBA draft, discover why interviews are a terrible way to gauge future job performance, and go inside a session with the Supreme Court to see how the world's most powerful justices avoid the dangers of group dynamics.

Every once in a while, a book comes along that not only challenges our views of the world but changes the way we think. In Sway, Ori and Rom Brafman not only uncover rational explanations for a wide variety of irrational behaviors but also point readers toward ways to avoid succumbing to their pull.
Tarski's World: Version 4.0 for the Macintosh/Book and Disk
Tarski's World
Version 4.0 for the Macintosh/Book and Disk
Paperback      ISBN: 1881526275

Tarski's World 4.0 is an innovative and enjoyable way to introduce your students to the language of first-order logic. Using this program, students quickly master the meaning of the connectives and quantifiers, and soon become fluent in the symbolic language at the core of modern logic. Tarski's World allows the students to build three-dimensional worlds, and to describe them in first-order logic. They evaluate the sentences in the constructed worlds, and if their evaluation is incorrect, the program provides them with a game that leads them to understand where they went wrong. The package is intended as a supplement to any standard logic text, or for use by anyone who wants to learn the language. The disk and manual contain over a hundred exercises from very basic to highly sophisticated.

A Field Guide to Lies: Critical Thinking in the Information Age
A Field Guide to Lies
Critical Thinking in the Information Age
Hardcover      ISBN: 0525955224
Winner of the National Business Book Award

From the New York Times bestselling author of The Organized Mind and This Is Your Brain on Music, a primer to the critical thinking that is more necessary now than ever

We are bombarded with more information each day than our brains can process--especially in election season. It's raining bad data, half-truths, and even outright lies. New York Times bestselling author Daniel J. Levitin shows how to recognize misleading announcements, statistics, graphs, and written reports, revealing the ways lying weasels can use them.

It's becoming harder to separate the wheat from the digital chaff. How do we distinguish misinformation, pseudo-facts, and distortions from reliable information? Levitin groups his field guide into two categories--statistical information and faulty arguments--ultimately showing how science is the bedrock of critical thinking. Infoliteracy means understanding that there are hierarchies of source quality and bias that variously distort our information feeds via every media channel, including social media. We may expect newspapers, bloggers, the government, and Wikipedia to be factually and logically correct, but they so often aren't. We need to think critically about the words and numbers we encounter if we want to be successful at work, at play, and in making the most of our lives. This means checking the plausibility and reasoning--not passively accepting information, repeating it, and making decisions based on it. Readers learn to avoid the extremes of passive gullibility and cynical rejection. Levitin's charming, entertaining, accessible guide can help anyone wake up to a whole lot of things that aren't so. And catch some weasels in their tracks


Abduction and Induction: Essays on Their Relation and Integration
Abduction and Induction
Essays on Their Relation and Integration
Hardcover      ISBN: 0792362500

From the very beginning of their investigation of human reasoning, philosophers have identified two other forms of reasoning, besides deduction, which we now call abduction and induction. Deduction is now fairly well understood, but abduction and induction have eluded a similar level of understanding. The papers collected here address the relationship between abduction and induction and their possible integration. The approach is sometimes philosophical, sometimes that of pure logic, and some papers adopt the more task-oriented approach of AI.
The book will command the attention of philosophers, logicians, AI researchers and computer scientists in general.

Abduction, Reason and Science: Processes of Discovery and Explanation
Abduction, Reason and Science
Processes of Discovery and Explanation
Hardcover      ISBN: 0306465140

This volume explores abduction (inference to explanatory hypotheses), an important but neglected topic in scientific reasoning. My aim is to inte- grate philosophical, cognitive, and computational issues, while also discuss- ing some cases of reasoning in science and medicine. The main thesis is that abduction is a significant kind of scientific reasoning, helpful in delineating the first principles of a new theory of science. The status of abduction is very controversial. When dealing with abduc- tive reasoning misinterpretations and equivocations are common. What are the differences between abduction and induction? What are the differences between abduction and the well-known hypothetico-deductive method? What did Peirce mean when he considered abduction a kind of inference? Does abduction involve only the generation of hypotheses or their evaluation too? Are the criteria for the best explanation in abductive reasoning epis- temic, or pragmatic, or both? How many kinds of abduction are there? The book aims to increase knowledge about creative and expert infer- ences. The study of these high-level methods of abductive reasoning is situ- ated at the crossroads of philosophy, epistemology, artificial intel1igence, cognitive psychology, and logic; that is, at the heart of cognitive science. Philosophers of science in the twentieth century have traditionally distin- guished between the inferential processes active in the logic of discovery and the ones active in logic of justification.

Abductive Reasoning and Learning
Abductive Reasoning and Learning
Hardcover      ISBN: 0792365658

This book contains leading survey papers on the various aspects of Abduction, both logical and numerical approaches. Abduction is central to all areas of applied reasoning, including artificial intelligence, philosophy of science, machine learning, data mining and decision theory, as well as logic itself.

Abductive Reasoning and Learning
Abductive Reasoning and Learning
Paperback      ISBN: 9048155606

This book contains leading survey papers on the various aspects of Abduction, both logical and numerical approaches. Abduction is central to all areas of applied reasoning, including artificial intelligence, philosophy of science, machine learning, data mining and decision theory, as well as logic itself.

The Advancement of Learning
The Advancement of Learning
Paperback      ISBN: 0375758461

Francis Bacon, lawyer, statesman, and philosopher, remains one of the most effectual thinkers in European intellectual history. We can trace his influence from Kant in the 1700s to Darwin a century later. The Advancement of Learning, first published in 1605, contains an unprecedented and thorough systematization of the whole range of human knowledge. Bacon's argument that the sciences should move away from divine philosophy and embrace empirical observation would forever change the way philosophers and natural scientists interpret their world.

Advances in Intensional Logic
Advances in Intensional Logic
Hardcover      ISBN: 0792347110

Intensional logic has emerged, since the 1960' s, as a powerful theoretical and practical tool in such diverse disciplines as computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, philosophy and even the foundations of mathematics. The present volume is a collection of carefully chosen papers, giving the reader a taste of the frontline state of research in intensional logics today. Most papers are representative of new ideas and/or new research themes. The collection would benefit the researcher as well as the student. This book is a most welcome addition to our series. The Editors CONTENTS PREFACE IX JOHAN VAN BENTHEM AND NATASHA ALECHINA Modal Quantification over Structured Domains PATRICK BLACKBURN AND WILFRIED MEYER-VIOL Modal Logic and Model-Theoretic Syntax 29 RUY J. G. B. DE QUEIROZ AND DOV M. GABBAY The Functional Interpretation of Modal Necessity 61 VLADIMIR V. RYBAKOV Logics of Schemes for First-Order Theories and Poly-Modal Propositional Logic 93 JERRY SELIGMAN The Logic of Correct Description 107 DIMITER VAKARELOV Modal Logics of Arrows 137 HEINRICH WANSING A Full-Circle Theorem for Simple Tense Logic 173 MICHAEL ZAKHARYASCHEV Canonical Formulas for Modal and Superintuitionistic Logics: A Short Outline 195 EDWARD N. ZALTA 249 The Modal Object Calculus and its Interpretation NAME INDEX 281 SUBJECT INDEX 285 PREFACE Intensional logic has many faces. In this preface we identify some prominent ones without aiming at completeness.

Agency and Deontic Logic
Agency and Deontic Logic
Hardcover      ISBN: 0195134613

John Horty effectively develops deontic logic (the logic of ethical concepts like obligation and permission) against the background of a formal theory of agency. He incorporates certain elements of decision theory to set out a new deontic account of what agents ought to do under various conditions over extended periods of time. Offering a conceptual rather than technical emphasis, Horty's framework allows a number of recent issues from moral theory to be set out clearly and discussed from a uniform point of view.