Geology Specific Aspects
Ecosystem Services and Management Strategy in China
Ecosystem Services and Management Strategy in China
Hardcover      ISBN: 3642387322

"Ecosystem Services and Management Strategy in China" is a two-year international cooperation project that culminated from the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development's Task Force on Ecosystem Services and Management. It combines case studies, scenario analysis, and stakeholder consultations that focus on Chinese forest, grassland and wetland ecosystems and assesses the economic and social benefits of sustainable ecosystems management. It also identifies better practices in ecosystem management from Chinese and international experience and recommends a more intensive integration of ecosystem services into decision-making processes. In November 2010, the Task Force presented five strategic policy proposals for the implementation of sustainable management for Chinese ecosystems. These proposals were extremely well-received by senior decision makers and have since been adopted by national government agencies. The book represents a valuable reference work for researchers and professionals working in related areas.

Professor Yiyu Chen worked as president at the National Natural Science Foundation of China from 2004 to early 2013 and is Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Professor Beate Jessel works as president at the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Germany. Professor Bojie Fu works at the Research Center of Eco-Environment Sciences, CAS and is Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Professor Xiubo Yu works at the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Dr.Jamie Pittock is a Senior Lecturer at the Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Australia.

Electrifying Atmospheres: Charging, Ionisation and Lightning in the Solar System and Beyond
Electrifying Atmospheres
Charging, Ionisation and Lightning in the Solar System and Beyond
Paperback      ISBN: 9400766327

Electrical processes take place in all planetary atmospheres. There is evidence for lightning on Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, it is possible on Mars and Titan, and cosmic rays ionise every atmosphere, leading to charged droplets and particles. Controversy surrounds the role of atmospheric electricity in physical climate processes on Earth; here, a comparative approach is employed to review the role of electrification in the atmospheres of other planets and their moons. This book reviews the theory, and, where available, measurements, of planetary atmospheric electricity, taken to include ion production and ion-aerosol interactions. The conditions necessary for a global atmospheric electric circuit similar to Earth's, and the likelihood of meeting these conditions in other planetary atmospheres, are briefly discussed. Atmospheric electrification is more important at planets receiving little solar radiation, increasing the relative significance of electrical forces. Nucleation onto atmospheric ions has been predicted to affect the evolution and lifetime of haze layers on Titan, Neptune and Triton. For planets closer to Earth, heating from solar radiation dominates atmospheric circulations. Mars may have a global circuit analogous to the terrestrial model, but based on electrical discharges from dust storms, and Titan may have a similar global circuit, based on transfer of charged raindrops. There is an increasing need for direct measurements of planetary atmospheric electrification, in particular on Mars, to assess the risk for future unmanned and manned missions. Theoretical understanding could be increased by cross-disciplinary work to modify and update models and parameterisations initially developed for a specific atmosphere, to make them more broadly applicable to other planetary atmospheres. The possibility of electrical processes in the atmospheres of exoplanets is also discussed.

Emerging Trends in Science, Engineering and Technology: Proceedings of International Conference, Incoset 2012
Emerging Trends in Science, Engineering and Technology
Proceedings of International Conference, Incoset 2012
Hardcover      ISBN: 8132210069

The present book is based on the research papers presented in the International Conference on Emerging Trends in Science, Engineering and Technology 2012, held at Tiruchirapalli, India. The papers presented bridges the gap between science, engineering and technology. This book covers a variety of topics, including mechanical, production, aeronautical, material science, energy, civil and environmental energy, scientific management, etc. The prime objective of the book is to fully integrate the scientific contributions from academicians, industrialists and research scholars.

Equilibrium Between Phases of Matter: Phenomenology and Thermodynamics
Equilibrium Between Phases of Matter
Phenomenology and Thermodynamics
Hardcover      ISBN: 1402061234

About the book, the project Equilibrium Between Phases of Matter - Phenomenology and Thermodynamics is a textbook, in which the phenomenology, the thermodynamic theory, and the practical use of phase diagrams are presented in three levels that diverge in nature - in particular as regards the role of thermodynamics. The book has been written from a chemical and geological teaching background. Each of the three levels of the book is representative of a particular course in a curriculum. Level 0: an introduction to phase diagrams The philosophy behind the ground level is that most of the characteristics of equilibrium between phases can be understood without the use of thermodynamics, realizing that, in a common-sense manner, the experimental observations on equilibria and spontaneous changes, and elementary notions about interactions, indicate the way to go. In spite of all this, the central figure in level zero, right from the beginning, is the chemical potential - a concept firmly rooted in thermodynamics. Equilibrium conditions in terms of chemical potentials, and the variables necessary to define a system in equilibrium are, are the basic elements of the system formulation.

Equilibrium Between Phases of Matter: Phenomenology and Thermodynamics
Equilibrium Between Phases of Matter
Phenomenology and Thermodynamics
Paperback      ISBN: 9048175429

About the book, the project Equilibrium Between Phases of Matter - Phenomenology and Thermodynamics is a textbook, in which the phenomenology, the thermodynamic theory, and the practical use of phase diagrams are presented in three levels that diverge in nature - in particular as regards the role of thermodynamics. The book has been written from a chemical and geological teaching background. Each of the three levels of the book is representative of a particular course in a curriculum. Level 0: an introduction to phase diagrams The philosophy behind the ground level is that most of the characteristics of equilibrium between phases can be understood without the use of thermodynamics, realizing that, in a common-sense manner, the experimental observations on equilibria and spontaneous changes, and elementary notions about interactions, indicate the way to go. In spite of all this, the central figure in level zero, right from the beginning, is the chemical potential - a concept firmly rooted in thermodynamics. Equilibrium conditions in terms of chemical potentials, and the variables necessary to define a system in equilibrium are, are the basic elements of the system formulation.

Equilibrium Between Phases of Matter: Supplemental Text for Materials Science and High-Pressure Geophysics
Equilibrium Between Phases of Matter
Supplemental Text for Materials Science and High-Pressure Geophysics
Hardcover      ISBN: 9400719477

The Second Volume of "Equilibrium between Phases of Matter", when compared with the First Volume, by H.A.J. Oonk and M.T. Calvet, published in 2008, amounts to an extension of subjects, and a deepening of understanding. In the first three sections of the text an extension is given of the theory on isobaric binary systems. The fourth section gives an account of the thermodynamic analyses of four isobaric binary key systems, highlighting the power of empirical, (exo)thermodynamic correlations. The fifth section is devoted to the thermodynamic description of ternary systems. The last three sections concentrate on the properties of materials, and the phase behaviour of systems under the conditions of high temperature and high pressure - conditions that prevail in the interior of the Earth. A new equation of state is the subject of the sixth section. In the seventh section a move is made to statistical thermodynamics and vibrational models; the description of the systems has changed from mathematical to physical. The last section is on the system MgO - SiO2, looked upon from a geophysical point of view.

Throughout the work high priority is given to the thermodynamic assessment of experimental data; numerous end-of-section exercises and their solutions are included. Along with the First Volume, the work is useful for materials scientists and geophysicists as a reference text.

Audience

Volume II is a lecture book for postgraduate students in chemistry, chemical engineering, geology and metallurgy. It is highly useful as a recommended text for teachers and researchers in all fields of materials science.

Equilibrium Between Phases of Matter: Supplemental Text for Materials Science and High-Pressure Geophysics
Equilibrium Between Phases of Matter
Supplemental Text for Materials Science and High-Pressure Geophysics
Paperback      ISBN: 9400799969

The Second Volume of "Equilibrium between Phases of Matter", when compared with the First Volume, by H.A.J. Oonk and M.T. Calvet, published in 2008, amounts to an extension of subjects, and a deepening of understanding. In the first three sections of the text an extension is given of the theory on isobaric binary systems. The fourth section gives an account of the thermodynamic analyses of four isobaric binary key systems, highlighting the power of empirical, (exo)thermodynamic correlations. The fifth section is devoted to the thermodynamic description of ternary systems. The last three sections concentrate on the properties of materials, and the phase behaviour of systems under the conditions of high temperature and high pressure - conditions that prevail in the interior of the Earth. A new equation of state is the subject of the sixth section. In the seventh section a move is made to statistical thermodynamics and vibrational models; the description of the systems has changed from mathematical to physical. The last section is on the system MgO - SiO2, looked upon from a geophysical point of view.

Throughout the work high priority is given to the thermodynamic assessment of experimental data; numerous end-of-section exercises and their solutions are included. Along with the First Volume, the work is useful for materials scientists and geophysicists as a reference text.

Audience

Volume II is a lecture book for postgraduate students in chemistry, chemical engineering, geology and metallurgy. It is highly useful as a recommended text for teachers and researchers in all fields of materials science.

Estuaries of Australia in 2050 and Beyond
Estuaries of Australia in 2050 and Beyond
Hardcover      ISBN: 9400770189

This book examines the environmental status of 20 iconic Australian estuaries and bays and suggests what they will look like in 2050 and beyond based on current socio-economic decisions and changes that are needed to ensure sustainability.

Fundamentals of Physical Geology
Fundamentals of Physical Geology
Hardcover      ISBN: 8132215389

Physical Geology is a vast subject and it is not possible to cover all aspects in one book. This book does not invent the wheel but merely put together sets of updated but concise material on Physical Geology with lots of illustrations. All illustrations are created by hand and give a real classroom feel to the book. Students or readers can easily reproduce them by hand. This is a book, where a diagram says it all. The book is divided into four parts. The first part "The Solar System and Cosmic Bodies" deals with elements of our Solar System and the cosmic bodies around it (like meteorites, asteroids, etc.). The second part "The Earth Materials" deals with Earth and its internal structure. The third part "The Hydrologic System" is more exhaustive and deals with the hydrological system of the Earth including Weathering and Mass Wasting, Streams, Groundwater, Karst, Glaciers, Oceans and Aeolian Processes and Landforms. The fourth and the final part "The Tectonic System" deals with different aspects of Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes and Volcanoes.

Geochemistry at the Earth's Surface: Movement of Chemical Elements
Geochemistry at the Earth's Surface
Movement of Chemical Elements
Hardcover      ISBN: 3642313582

The importance of clay minerals for soil functioning is well recognized.