Geology Specific Aspects
Campbell's Atlas of Oil and Gas Depletion
Paperback ISBN: 1493943871
Compiled since the 1960s by the geologist, former oil executive and oil analyst Colin Campbell, this book synthesizes a half-century of critical analysis and data on the status of oil and gas depletion by country, by region and for the world as a whole.
Cities at Risk
Living With Perils in the 21st Century
Hardcover ISBN: 940076183x
When a natural hazard strikes a city, many people are vulnerable. This book explores what city-dwellers think and feel about the threats that they face. It brings to light the ways different cultures represent the natural hazards around them.
Hardcover ISBN: 9400752334
In addition to common hydrometeorological disasters in coastal zones, this book covers tsunami impacts and warning systems, the impact of rising sea levels and human perceptions of vulnerability resulting from rip currents that cause many drownings yearly.
Coastal Karst Landforms
Hardcover ISBN: 9400750153
Carbonate rock coasts are found world-wide, from continental shorelines of the Adriatic Sea of Europe to the Yucatan Peninsula of North America, and on tropical islands from Rodrigues Island in the Indian Ocean, to the Mariana Islands in the Pacific Ocean, to the Bahama Islands in the Atlantic Ocean. Such coasts are well known for their unusual and distinctive karst landforms. Karst processes, particularly those associated with coastal landforms, are proving to be surprisingly unique and complex. This volume presents a comprehensive overview of the processes associated with coastal karst development comparing examples from a broad geographical and geomorphological range of island and continental shoreline/paleoshoreline settings, including a review of pseudokarst processes that can compete with and overprint dynamic coastal karst landscapes. As effective management of hydrologic resources grows more complex, coastal caves and karst represent fundamental components in associated coastal aquifers, which in the rock record can also form significant petroleum reservoirs. Audience By providing a clearer understanding of the geological, biological, archaeological and cultural value of coastal caves and karst resources, this volume offers a critical tool to coastal researchers and geoscientists in related fields and to coastal land managers as it illustrates the diversity of coastal karst landforms, the unique processes which formed them, the diversity of resources they harbor and their relationship to coastal zone preservation strategies and the development of sustainable management approaches.
Constant-Scale Natural Boundary Mapping to Reveal Global and Cosmic Processes
Paperback ISBN: 1461477611
Whereas conventional maps can be expressed as outward-expanding formulae with well-defined central features and relatively poorly defined edges, Constant Scale Natural Boundary (CSNB) maps have well-defined boundaries that result from natural processes and thus allow spatial and dynamic relationships to be observed in a new way useful to understanding these processes. CSNB mapping presents a new approach to visualization that produces maps markedly different from those produced by conventional cartographic methods. In this approach, any body can be represented by a 3D coordinate system. For a regular body, with its surface relatively smooth on the scale of its size, locations of features can be represented by definite geographic grid (latitude and longitude) and elevation, or deviation from the triaxial ellipsoid defined surface. A continuous surface on this body can be segmented, its distinctive regional terranes enclosed, and their inter-relationships defined, by using selected morphologically identifiable relief features (e.g., continental divides, plate boundaries, river or current systems). In this way, regions of distinction on a large, essentially spherical body can be mapped as two-dimensional ‘facets’ with their boundaries representing regional to global-scale asymmetries (e.g., continental crust, continental and oceanic crust on the Earth, farside original thicker crust and nearside thinner impact punctuated crust on the Moon). In an analogous manner, an irregular object such as an asteroid, with a surface that is rough on the scale of its size, would be logically segmented along edges of its impact-generated faces. Bounded faces are imagined with hinges at occasional points along boundaries, resulting in a foldable ‘shape model.’ Thus, bounded faces grow organically out of the most compelling natural features. Obvious boundaries control the map’s extremities, and peripheral regions are not dismembered or grossly distorted as in conventional map projections. 2D maps and 3D models grow out of an object’s most obvious face or terrane ‘edges,’ instead of arbitrarily by imposing a regular grid system or using regularly shaped facets to represent an irregular surface.
Continuous and Discontinuous Modelling of Fracture in Concrete Using FEM
Hardcover ISBN: 3642284620
The book analyzes a quasi-static fracture process in concrete and reinforced concrete by means of constitutive models formulated within continuum mechanics. A continuous and discontinuous modelling approach was used. Using a continuous approach, numerical analyses were performed using a finite element method and four different enhanced continuum models: isotropic elasto-plastic, isotropic damage and anisotropic smeared crack one. The models were equipped with a characteristic length of micro-structure by means of a non-local and a second-gradient theory. So they could properly describe the formation of localized zones with a certain thickness and spacing and a related deterministic size effect. Using a discontinuous FE approach, numerical results of cracks using a cohesive crack model and XFEM were presented which were also properly regularized. Finite element analyses were performed with concrete elements under monotonic uniaxial compression, uniaxial tension, bending and shear-extension. Concrete beams under cyclic loading were also simulated using a coupled elasto-plastic-damage approach. Numerical simulations were performed at macro- and meso-level of concrete. A stochastic and deterministic size effect was carefully investigated. In the case of reinforced concrete specimens, FE calculations were carried out with bars, slender and short beams, columns, corbels and tanks. Tensile and shear failure mechanisms were studied. Numerical results were compared with results from corresponding own and known in the scientific literature laboratory and full-scale tests.
Mechanics, Prediction and Countermeasures
Paperback ISBN: 1138073679
This is the 2nd edition of one of the most comprehensive accounts of debris flow, describing both theoretical and applied aspects. In the first part, the fundamental mechanical characteristics are discussed, including flow characteristics, type classification, mechanics, occurrence and development, fully developed flow, and deposition processes. The second part sheds light on the application of the theories presented in computer-simulated reproductions of real disasters. Special attention is paid to debris flow controlling structures, design effectiveness and performance, soft countermeasure problems, such as the identification of debris flow prone ravines and the prediction of occurrence by means of precipitation threshold. This new edition has been wholly revised and updated, and now includes a new chapter on sediment runoff models that include debris flow processes and new sections concerning landslides. The qualitative and fundamental character of this text makes it an excellent textbook for graduate-level courses and it is recommended reading for professionals in engineering, geosciences and water resources who are working on the mechanics and countermeasures of debris flow. The original, Japanese version of this book was awarded the
Deformation Microstructures in Rocks
Hardcover ISBN: 3642256074
Study of microstructures is an indispensable component of understanding structural geology of any terrain. A number of ‘new’ microscopic structures such as ‘flanking microstructures’, trapezoid-shaped mineral grains, reversal of ductile shear sense, micro-duplexes, V-pull aparts, and new minerals nucleating inside host minerals have recently been described in individual manuscripts. However, for the sake of brevity, microstructural papers cannot show all possible variation in their morphology. The proposed book aims to present these structures with attractive colour photographs. Each photomicrograph will have a comprehensive caption. The book also presents grain boundary migration, boudins, symptoms of metamorphic retrogression, and how well known shear sense indicators (S-C fabrics, mineral fish etc.) vary in morphology in serial-sections. The target audience is for graduate and postgraduate geosciences students and researchers of structural geology.