With the major growth of the world’s population over the past century, as well as rapid urbanisation, people increasingly live in crowded cities. This trend is often accompanied by proliferation of poorly built housing, uncontrolled use of land, occupation of unsafe environments and overstretched services. When a natural hazard strikes such a city many people are vulnerable to loss of life and property. This book explores what these people think and feel about the threats that they face. How do they live with perils ranging from earthquakes to monsoons, from floods to hurricanes, in the 21st century?The authors are drawn from a large range of disciplines: Psychology, Engineering, Geography, Anthropology and Urban Planning. They also reflect on how perils are represented in multiple cultures: the United States, Japan, Turkey, Bangladesh, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. The book therefore not only brings to light the ways that different cultures represent natural hazards but also the different ways in which various disciplines write about living with perils in the 21st century.The book is addressed both to researchers and to organizations involved with risk management and risk mitigation.
"Climate Change and Island and Coastal Vulnerability" is the outcome of a selection of peer reviewed edited papers presented at the International Workshop on Climate Change and Island Vulnerability (IWCCI) held at Kadmat Island, Lakshadweep, India in October 2010. Marine and coastal biodiversity, sea level rise vulnerability, fisheries, climate change impact on livelihood options, water and sanitation in island ecosystem and mitigation, adaptation and governance are the focal themes. The basic concept conveyed in the book is that biodiversity of islands is to be protected as a natural mechanism to mitigate climate change. Probability recurrence of mass coral bleaching and the management of coral reefs and their future protection are discussed in this book. Marine productivity and climate change for the last ten thousand years in the Arabian Sea have been examined with core records. Green technology is suggested as an important tool for mitigation and adaptation programmes in climate change. Measures taken to project biomass utilisation of islands as an energy source is delineated. Climate change may pose a potential threat on human health. Improved sanitation packages and models that are cost effective and environment-friendly for islands are uniquely presented in this book.
This book covers the gamut of coastal hazards that result from short-term low-frequency events and have high-magnitude and far-reaching impacts on coastal zones the world over. Much of the world’s population now lives in low-lying coastal zones that are inherently vulnerable to natural hazards such as flooding from hurricanes, tropical storms and northeastern storm surges; shoreline (beach and dune) erosion; cliff and bluff failures; and saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers used for drinking water supplies. In addition to the usual range of hydrometeorological disasters in coastal zones, this book covers tsunami impacts and warning systems as well as global perspectives of sea-level rise impacts and human perceptions of potential vulnerabilities resulting from rip currents that cause many drownings each year on beaches. Today, the use of numerical models that help predict vulnerabilities and provide a basis for shore protection measures is important in modern scientific and engineering systems. Final considerations focus on human actions in the form of the urbanization and industrialization of the coast, shore protection measures, and indicate how environmental degradation around coastal conurbations exacerbates the potential for unwanted impacts. Strategies for environmental management in coastal zones, from low-lying wetlands to high cliffs and rocky promontories, are highlighted as a means of living in harmony with Nature and not trying to conquer it.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the processes associated with coastal karst development, comparing examples from a broad geographical and geomorphological range of island and continental shoreline/paleoshoreline settings.
This book demonstrates what the discipline of economics has to offer as support for analyzing cooperation on management of trans-boundary water resources. It also considers what the discipline of economics has to acquire to become a more effective contributor to trans-boundary water resource management given political, legal, social, physical, scientific, and ecological realities. This book has its genesis in a symposium of the International Water and Resource Economics Consortium held at Annapolis, Maryland, April 13-16, 1997. The symposium was organized by the editors and the book contains papers presented at the symposium with subsequent revisions. The symposium brought together both economists and agency management personnel for the purpose of discussing not only how economic tools apply to trans-boundary water management, but also of identifying the obstacles to making such tools useful and informative to politicians and negotiators in public decision making roles. INTERNATIONAL VERSUS DOMESTIC TRANS-BOUNDARY PROBLEMS Trans-boundary water problems arise in many dimensions. The two most important types of problems emphasized in this book are international and domestic interstate or interregional problems. Cooperation on international problems is especially difficult because enforcement must be voluntary given the sovereignty of nations and the absence of an effective legal enforcement mechanism. Agreements must be sustainable and self-enforced if they are to have lasting benefits. Every negotiating country must be convinced it will receive benefits before it gives its consent to cooperation. In the absence of enforceable agreements, trans-boundary (i. e.
Whereas conventional maps can be expressed as outward-expanding formulae with well-defined central features and relatively poorly defined edges, Constant Scale Natural Boundary (CSNB) maps have well-defined boundaries that result from natural processes and thus allow spatial and dynamic relationships to be observed in a new way useful to understanding these processes. CSNB mapping presents a new approach to visualization that produces maps markedly different from those produced by conventional cartographic methods. In this approach, any body can be represented by a 3D coordinate system. For a regular body, with its surface relatively smooth on the scale of its size, locations of features can be represented by definite geographic grid (latitude and longitude) and elevation, or deviation from the triaxial ellipsoid defined surface. A continuous surface on this body can be segmented, its distinctive regional terranes enclosed, and their inter-relationships defined, by using selected morphologically identifiable relief features (e.g., continental divides, plate boundaries, river or current systems). In this way, regions of distinction on a large, essentially spherical body can be mapped as two-dimensional ‘facets’ with their boundaries representing regional to global-scale asymmetries (e.g., continental crust, continental and oceanic crust on the Earth, farside original thicker crust and nearside thinner impact punctuated crust on the Moon). In an analogous manner, an irregular object such as an asteroid, with a surface that is rough on the scale of its size, would be logically segmented along edges of its impact-generated faces. Bounded faces are imagined with hinges at occasional points along boundaries, resulting in a foldable ‘shape model.’ Thus, bounded faces grow organically out of the most compelling natural features. Obvious boundaries control the map’s extremities, and peripheral regions are not dismembered or grossly distorted as in conventional map projections. 2D maps and 3D models grow out of an object’s most obvious face or terrane ‘edges,’ instead of arbitrarily by imposing a regular grid system or using regularly shaped facets to represent an irregular surface.
The book analyzes a quasi-static fracture process in concrete and reinforced concrete by means of constitutive models formulated within continuum mechanics. A continuous and discontinuous modelling approach was used. Using a continuous approach, numerical analyses were performed using a finite element method and four different enhanced continuum models: isotropic elasto-plastic, isotropic damage and anisotropic smeared crack one. The models were equipped with a characteristic length of micro-structure by means of a non-local and a second-gradient theory. So they could properly describe the formation of localized zones with a certain thickness and spacing and a related deterministic size effect. Using a discontinuous FE approach, numerical results of cracks using a cohesive crack model and XFEM were presented which were also properly regularized. Finite element analyses were performed with concrete elements under monotonic uniaxial compression, uniaxial tension, bending and shear-extension. Concrete beams under cyclic loading were also simulated using a coupled elasto-plastic-damage approach. Numerical simulations were performed at macro- and meso-level of concrete. A stochastic and deterministic size effect was carefully investigated. In the case of reinforced concrete specimens, FE calculations were carried out with bars, slender and short beams, columns, corbels and tanks. Tensile and shear failure mechanisms were studied. Numerical results were compared with results from corresponding own and known in the scientific literature laboratory and full-scale tests.
This is the 2nd edition of one of the most comprehensive accounts of debris flow, describing both theoretical and applied aspects. In the first part, the fundamental mechanical characteristics are discussed, including flow characteristics, type classification, mechanics, occurrence and development, fully developed flow, and deposition processes. The second part sheds light on the application of the theories presented in computer-simulated reproductions of real disasters. Special attention is paid to debris flow controlling structures, design effectiveness and performance, soft countermeasure problems, such as the identification of debris flow prone ravines and the prediction of occurrence by means of precipitation threshold. This new edition has been wholly revised and updated, and now includes a new chapter on sediment runoff models that include debris flow processes and new sections concerning landslides.
The qualitative and fundamental character of this text makes it an excellent textbook for graduate-level courses and it is recommended reading for professionals in engineering, geosciences and water resources who are working on the mechanics and countermeasures of debris flow. The original, Japanese version of this book was awarded the 'Publishing Culture Prize' by the Japanese Society of Civil Engineers (2004).Tamotsu Takahashi is Professor Emeritus at the University of Kyoto. In addition to his academic positions, he is the Director of the Association for Disaster Prevention Research in Kyoto. Professor Takahashi began his career in flood dynamics research, and increasingly focused on debris flow and flood hazards. He has been honoured with several awards from the Japan Society of Civil Engineers and the Japan Society of Erosion Control Engineering. An earlier book entitled 'Debris Flow', by Tamotsu Takahashi, in the book series of the International Association of Hydraulic Engineering and Research, was published by Balkema Publishers, now a part of the Taylor & Francis Group.
Study of microstructures is an indispensable component of understanding the structural geology of any terrain. This volume details known structures with attractive colour photographs and also covers related topics such as boundary migration and boudins.
Carbonate depositional systems in the Paleozoic geologic time represent fewer studies in paleoecological interactions than the siliciclastic systems. To evaluate this difference, the paleontology of the Middle Devonian Dundee Formation in Ohio has been explored. This geologic formation represents an important environment in the Michigan Basin of North America. Understanding biotic relationships such as mutualism, commensalism, parasitism and predation in an ecological community is important in unraveling the mystery of the fossil record. This research has contributed a large field collection which will be useful in documenting the fossil content of this unit for future workers. Rituparna Bose used new microscopic and imaging techniques in qualitatively analyzing the biotic interactions in small invertebrate shells. More importantly, she solved complex hypotheses in newly emerging problems in the field of geology and paleontology, such as the biodiversity crisis. Her study involved exploring the Devonian geology and paleontology of a geologic formation of a new unexplored quarry in Ohio, namely the Whitehouse Quarry in Lucas County, Ohio. She identified Devonian brachiopods to the genus level based on their morphology, and diagnosed paleoecological entities on host brachiopods and further measured episkeletobiont traces on hosts to understand the effects of environment and evolution on extinct species. Such studies have implications in predicting future biodiversity, ecosystem conservation and climate change. This research will also assist future workers to compare the ecology of brachiopod hosts of the Dundee Limestone with that of other Devonian brachiopods, from both carbonate and siliciclastic settings.