Theory of Numbers
The Golden Number: Pythagorean Rites and Rhythms in the Development of Western Civilization
The Golden Number
Pythagorean Rites and Rhythms in the Development of Western Civilization
Hardcover      ISBN: 1594771006

The first English translation of Ghyka's masterwork on sacred geometry

- Reveals how the Golden Number Phi underlies the spiritual nature of beauty and the hidden harmonies that connect the whole of creation

- Explains how the spiritual mysteries of the Golden Number were passed down in an unbroken line of transmission from the Pythagorean brotherhoods through the medieval builders' guilds to the secret societies of 18th-century Europe

The Golden Number, or Phi (Φ), is a geometric ratio found throughout nature, often underlying the dimensions of objects considered especially beautiful. Simplified as 1.618 and symbolized by the Fibonacci sequence, the Golden Number represents the unique relationship within an object where the ratio of a larger part to a smaller part is the same as the ratio of the whole to the larger part. It appears in the proportions of the human face and body as well as in the proportions of animals, plants, and celestial bodies.

Called the divine proportion by the monk Fra Luca Pacioli, whose book on the subject was illustrated by Leonardo da Vinci, Phi's use in art and architecture goes back at least to the mystical mathematics of Pythagoras and his followers in the sixth century BCE. The perfect synthesis of spiritual and material, it can be found in the measurements of the sacred temples of Egypt, Ancient Greece, and Medieval and Renaissance Europe. The asymptotic series of integers that define Phi represent the macrocosm and microcosm as portrayed in Plato's concept of the world soul.

Presenting Matila Ghyka's classic treatise on the Golden Number for the first time in English, this book reveals the many ways this ratio can be found not only in the organic forms of nature--such as in the spirals of shells or the number of petals on a flower--but also in the most beautiful and highest creations of humanity. One of the most important concepts of sacred geometry, its mysteries were passed down in an unbroken line of transmission from the Pythagorean brotherhoods through the medieval builders' guilds to the secret societies of 18th-century Europe. Ghyka shows how the secrets of this divine proportion were not sought merely for their value in architecture, painting, and music, but also as a portal to a deeper understanding of the spiritual nature of beauty and the hidden harmonies that connect the whole of creation.
Representations of Integers As Sums of Squares
Representations of Integers As Sums of Squares
Hardcover      ISBN: 0387961267

During the academic year 1980-1981 I was teaching at the Technion-the Israeli Institute of Technology-in Haifa. The audience was small, but con sisted of particularly gifted and eager listeners; unfortunately, their back ground varied widely. What could one offer such an audience, so as to do justice to all of them? I decided to discuss representations of natural integers as sums of squares, starting on the most elementary level, but with the inten tion of pushing ahead as far as possible in some of the different directions that offered themselves (quadratic forms, theory of genera, generalizations and modern developments, etc.), according to the interests of the audience. A few weeks after the start of the academic year I received a letter from Professor Gian-Carlo Rota, with the suggestion that I submit a manuscript for the Encyclopedia of Mathematical Sciences under his editorship. I answered that I did not have a ready manuscript to offer, but that I could use my notes on representations of integers by sums of squares as the basis for one. Indeed, about that time I had already started thinking about the possibility of such a book and had, in fact, quite precise ideas about the kind of book I wanted it to be."

Finding Zero: A Mathematician's Odyssey to Uncover the Origins of Numbers
Finding Zero
A Mathematician's Odyssey to Uncover the Origins of Numbers
Hardcover      ISBN: 1137279842

The invention of numerals is perhaps the greatest abstraction the human mind has ever created. Virtually everything in our lives is digital, numerical, or quantified. The story of how and where we got these numerals, which we so depend on, has for thousands of years been shrouded in mystery. Finding Zero is an adventure filled saga of Amir Aczel's lifelong obsession: to find the original sources of our numerals. Aczel has doggedly crisscrossed the ancient world, scouring dusty, moldy texts, cross examining so-called scholars who offered wildly differing sets of facts, and ultimately penetrating deep into a Cambodian jungle to find a definitive proof. Here, he takes the reader along for the ride.

The history begins with the early Babylonian cuneiform numbers, followed by the later Greek and Roman letter numerals. Then Aczel asks the key question: where do the numbers we use today, the so-called Hindu-Arabic numerals, come from? It is this search that leads him to explore uncharted territory, to go on a grand quest into India, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and ultimately into the wilds of Cambodia. There he is blown away to find the earliest zero--the keystone of our entire system of numbers--on a crumbling, vine-covered wall of a seventh-century temple adorned with eaten-away erotic sculptures. While on this odyssey, Aczel meets a host of fascinating characters: academics in search of truth, jungle trekkers looking for adventure, surprisingly honest politicians, shameless smugglers, and treacherous archaeological thieves--who finally reveal where our numbers come from.

13 Lectures on Fermat's Last Theorem
13 Lectures on Fermat's Last Theorem
Hardcover      ISBN: 0387904328

Fermat's problem, also ealled Fermat's last theorem, has attraeted the attention of mathematieians far more than three eenturies. Many clever methods have been devised to attaek the problem, and many beautiful theories have been ereated with the aim of proving the theorem. Yet, despite all the attempts, the question remains unanswered. The topie is presented in the form of leetures, where I survey the main lines of work on the problem. In the first two leetures, there is a very brief deseription of the early history, as well as a seleetion of a few of the more representative reeent results. In the leetures whieh follow, I examine in sue- eession the main theories eonneeted with the problem. The last two lee tu res are about analogues to Fermat's theorem. Some of these leetures were aetually given, in a shorter version, at the Institut Henri Poineare, in Paris, as well as at Queen's University, in 1977. I endeavoured to produee a text, readable by mathematieians in general, and not only by speeialists in number theory. However, due to a limitation in size, I am aware that eertain points will appear sketehy. Another book on Fermat's theorem, now in preparation, will eontain a eonsiderable amount of the teehnieal developments omitted here. It will serve those who wish to learn these matters in depth and, I hope, it will clarify and eomplement the present volume.

13 Lectures on Fermat's Last Theorem
13 Lectures on Fermat's Last Theorem
Paperback      ISBN: 144192809x

Fermat's problem, also ealled Fermat's last theorem, has attraeted the attention of mathematieians far more than three eenturies. Many clever methods have been devised to attaek the problem, and many beautiful theories have been ereated with the aim of proving the theorem. Yet, despite all the attempts, the question remains unanswered. The topie is presented in the form of leetures, where I survey the main lines of work on the problem. In the first two leetures, there is a very brief deseription of the early history, as well as a seleetion of a few of the more representative reeent results. In the leetures whieh follow, I examine in sue- eession the main theories eonneeted with the problem. The last two lee tu res are about analogues to Fermat's theorem. Some of these leetures were aetually given, in a shorter version, at the Institut Henri Poineare, in Paris, as well as at Queen's University, in 1977. I endeavoured to produee a text, readable by mathematieians in general, and not only by speeialists in number theory. However, due to a limitation in size, I am aware that eertain points will appear sketehy. Another book on Fermat's theorem, now in preparation, will eontain a eonsiderable amount of the teehnieal developments omitted here. It will serve those who wish to learn these matters in depth and, I hope, it will clarify and eomplement the present volume.

17 Lectures on Fermat Numbers: From Number Theory to Geometry
17 Lectures on Fermat Numbers
From Number Theory to Geometry
Hardcover      ISBN: 0387953329

The pioneering work of Pierre de Fermat has attracted the attention of mathematicians for over 350 years. This book provides an overview of the many properties of Fermat numbers and demonstrates their applications in areas such as number theory, probability theory, geometry, and signal processing. It is an ideal introduction to the basic mathematical ideas and algebraic methods connected with the Fermat numbers.

Additive Number Theory: Inverse Problems and the Geometry of Sumsets
Additive Number Theory
Inverse Problems and the Geometry of Sumsets
Hardcover      ISBN: 0387946551

Many classical problems in additive number theory are direct problems, in which one starts with a set A of natural numbers and an integer H -> 2, and tries to describe the structure of the sumset hA consisting of all sums of h elements of A. By contrast, in an inverse problem, one starts with a sumset hA, and attempts to describe the structure of the underlying set A. In recent years there has been ramrkable progress in the study of inverse problems for finite sets of integers. In particular, there are important and beautiful inverse theorems due to Freiman, Kneser, Pl nnecke, Vosper, and others. This volume includes their results, and culminates with an elegant proof by Ruzsa of the deep theorem of Freiman that a finite set of integers with a small sumset must be a large subset of an n-dimensional arithmetic progression.

Additive Number Theory: Festschrift in Honor of the Sixtieth Birthday of Melvyn B. Nathanson
Additive Number Theory
Festschrift in Honor of the Sixtieth Birthday of Melvyn B. Nathanson
Hardcover      ISBN: 0387370293

This impressive volume is dedicated to Mel Nathanson, a leading authoritative expert for several decades in the area of combinatorial and additive number theory. For several decades, Mel Nathanson's seminal ideas and results in combinatorial and additive number theory have influenced graduate students and researchers alike. The invited survey articles in this volume reflect the work of distinguished mathematicians in number theory, and represent a wide range of important topics in current research.

Additive Number Theory: Festschrift in Honor of the Sixtieth Birthday of Melvyn B. Nathanson
Additive Number Theory
Festschrift in Honor of the Sixtieth Birthday of Melvyn B. Nathanson
Paperback      ISBN: 1489981462

This impressive volume is dedicated to Mel Nathanson, a leading authoritative expert for several decades in the area of combinatorial and additive number theory. For several decades, Mel Nathanson's seminal ideas and results in combinatorial and additive number theory have influenced graduate students and researchers alike. The invited survey articles in this volume reflect the work of distinguished mathematicians in number theory, and represent a wide range of important topics in current research.

Additive Number Theory the Classical Bases
Additive Number Theory the Classical Bases
Hardcover      ISBN: 038794656x

Hilbert's] style has not the terseness of many of our modem authors in mathematics, which is based on the assumption that printer's labor and paper are costly but the reader's effort and time are not. H. Weyl 143] The purpose of this book is to describe the classical problems in additive number theory and to introduce the circle method and the sieve method, which are the basic analytical and combinatorial tools used to attack these problems. This book is intended for students who want to lel?Ill additive number theory, not for experts who already know it. For this reason, proofs include many "unnecessary" and "obvious" steps; this is by design. The archetypical theorem in additive number theory is due to Lagrange: Every nonnegative integer is the sum of four squares. In general, the set A of nonnegative integers is called an additive basis of order h if every nonnegative integer can be written as the sum of h not necessarily distinct elements of A. Lagrange 's theorem is the statement that the squares are a basis of order four. The set A is called a basis offinite order if A is a basis of order h for some positive integer h. Additive number theory is in large part the study of bases of finite order. The classical bases are the squares, cubes, and higher powers; the polygonal numbers; and the prime numbers. The classical questions associated with these bases are Waring's problem and the Goldbach conjecture.