Explores the American Masonic system and its strengths and failings- Examines the history of Freemasonry in the United States from the colonial era and the Revolutionary War to the rise of the Scottish branch onward - Investigates the racial split in American Freemasonry between black lodges and white and how, unlike French lodges, women are ineligible to become Masons in the U.S. - Reveals the factors that have resulted in shrinking Masonic enrollment in America and explores the revitalization work done by the Grand Lodge of California Freemasonry bears the imprint of the society in which it exists, and Freemasonry in North America is no exception. While keeping close ties to French lodges until 1913, American Freemasonry was also deeply influenced by the experiences of many early American political leaders, leading to distinctive differences from European lodges. Offering an unobstructed view of the American system and its strengths and failings, Alain de Keghel, an elder of the Grand Orient de France and, since 1999, a lifetime member of the Scottish Rite Research Society (Southern U.S. jurisdiction), examines the history of Freemasonry in the United States from the colonial era to the Revolutionary War to the rise of the Scottish branch onward. He reveals the special relationship between the French Masonic hero, the Marquis de Lafayette, and the Founding Fathers, especially George Washington and Benjamin Franklin, including French Freemasonry's role in the American Revolution. He also explores Franklin's Masonic membership, including how he was Elder of the lodge of the Nine Sisters in Paris. The author investigates the racial split in American Freemasonry between black lodges and white and how, unlike French lodges, women are ineligible to become Masons in the U.S. He examines how American Freemasonry has remained deeply religious across the centuries and forbids discussion of religious or social issues in its lodges, unlike some branches of French Freemasonry, which removed belief in God as a prerequisite for membership in 1877 and whose lodges operate in some respects as philosophical debating societies. Revealing the factors that have resulted in shrinking Masonic enrollment in America, the author explores the revitalization work done by the Grand Lodge of California and sounds the call to make Freemasonry and its principles relevant to America once again.
An expose of the dark and critical role secret societies play within the ruling families in America and their influence on American democracy, current events, and world history.- Reveals the enormous influence secret societies still have on contemporary American life. - Shows how the secret Masonic cells that smuggled in the democratic ideals inspiring the American Revolution also enabled the future elite of the new society to build huge fortunes. Elite and secret societies have always been a major force in the history of Western civilization. The alliances formed in secret societies such as the Knights Templar, the Knights of Christ, and the Freemasons transcended patriotism and religious beliefs and had a powerful influence on the establishment of the United States of America. While these secret associations of merchants, smugglers, occultists, gamblers, spies, and slavers succeeded in freeing the United States from foreign domination, the dark side is that the elite used their secret connections to further their own wealth and power. These secret cells did not hesitate to sponsor the assassination of a president and even attempted to break up the union on several occasions when it was deemed expedient. From the Sons of Liberty and the Essex Junto to the Ku Klux Klan, secret societies have played critical roles in building the fortunes of America's elite. Now Steven Sora reveals in alarming detail how secretive societies continue to wield power even today as organizations such as Yale's Skull & Bones unite America's modern ruling families as strongly as Masonic Lodges once connected the Astors, Livingstons, and Roosevelts. Their immense power and wealth allow this elite to control America to an even greater degree than the Templars once dominated Europe.
But there is a progressive side to Yale's secret societies that we rarely hear about, one that, in the cultural tumult of the nineteen-sixties, resulted in the election of people of color, women, and gay men, even in proportions beyond their percentages in the class. It's a side that is often overlooked in favor of sensational legends of blood oaths and toe-curling conspiracies. Dave Richards, an alum of Yale, sheds some light on the lesser known stories of Yale's secret societies. He takes us through the history from Phi Beta Kappa in the American Revolution (originally a social and drinking society) through Skull and Bones and its rivals in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. While there have been articles and books on some of those societies, there has never been a scholarly history of the system as a whole.
An exploration of the influence of secret societies on the formative documents and symbols of the United States- Reveals the Founding Fathers' spiritual vision for America as encoded in the Great Seal - Traces the influence of the Iroquois League of Nations upon the Constitution - Exposes the deep connections the Founding Fathers had with the Freemasons and other secret societies All children growing up in America learn who the Founding Fathers were. Most, however, never learn of the founders' connections to the Freemasons, the Rosicrucians, and other esoteric orders. In Founding Fathers, Secret Societies Robert Hieronimus investigates these important connections and how their influence can be traced throughout our most significant national documents and symbols, especially the Great Seal. He reveals in detail how the reverse of the Great Seal--which appears on the back of the one-dollar bill--is a blueprint that conveys the secret destiny of America. By understanding the kabbalistic meaning of the Great Seal's reverse, he shows how our current era presents unique opportunities for the fulfillment of our Founding Fathers' spiritual vision.
The first complete historical and philosophical investigation into the "invisible fraternity" of the Rosicrucians- Contains the latest research on the origins of the Rosicrucian movement - Presents the ties between Rosicrucianism, Freemasonry, and the Templars - Written by a "perfected" Knight of the Rose Croix and the Pelican (18th degree, Ancient and Accepted Rite) For nearly 400 years, incredible myths and stories have been woven around the "invisible" Brothers of the Rose Cross, the Rosicrucians. It is said that they possessed the secret of man and God, that they could turn lead into gold, that they governed Europe in secret, that theirs was the true philosophy of Freemasonry, and that they could save--or destroy--the world. In The Invisible History of the Rosicrucians, Tobias Churton, a "perfected" Knight of the Rose Croix and the Pelican (18th degree, Ancient and Accepted Rite), presents the first definitive historical and philosophical view of this mysterious brotherhood. Starting at its beginnings in Germany in 1603, Churton unveils the truth behind the complex story that underlies the Rosicrucian movement. He explains its purpose, the motives of its earliest creators, and the manifestos "accidentally" published in the 17th century that emerged at precisely the time when modern science was emerging. He details the people who influenced its development--including Johannes Kepler, Robert Fludd, and Sir Francis Bacon--and the ties between the Rosicrucians, Freemasons, and Templars. He also shows how Rosicrucianism shaped the mythology and spiritual consciousness of both North and South America and reveals that there are many Rosicrucian fraternities still active throughout the world today.
Creativity, resourcefulness and a strong vision of equality in America helped Black men and women to establish their own organizations despite the continuing legacy and stigma of the slavery period. Frontiers International, the oldest Black community service organization in the U.S., was born in the heart of the Depression and called together Black men concerned about the condition of Blacks in America. Despite racial and religious turbulence during the 1930's, the Frontiers managed to maintain a posture of service to the deprived and needy in the minority community. Advancement Through Service constitutes the first history of this public service effort on the part of Blacks in the U.S. Contents: Nimrod B. Allen; Harold L. Pilgrim; Years of Growth; The Constitution and By-Laws; Frontiers and Vitiligo; Women's Auxiliary: The Yokettes; A Fish in the Sea; Africa and America; Service: A Community Challenge.
Qualitative research encompasses all forms of field research performed with qualitative data, that is, data that is presented in non-numeric form. Purely quantitative organizational researchers should find Advances in Qualitative Organizational Research valuable as a source of grounded insights and testable hypotheses. The need for an annual series such as this grows out of the absence of a periodic outlet offering the physical space per manuscript required to write a meaningfully deep description of qualitative data and, at the same time, a sufficiently detailed theoretical interpretation and conceptual conclusion.
Takes a behind-the-scenes look at Yale's mysterious society, the Order of the Skull and Bones, and its prominent members, numbering among them Tafts, Rockefellers, Pillsburys, and Bushes. This book reveals that far from being a campus fraternity, the society is more concerned with the success of its members in the post-collegiate world.