Explores the American Masonic system and its strengths and failings- Examines the history of Freemasonry in the United States from the colonial era and the Revolutionary War to the rise of the Scottish branch onward - Investigates the racial split in American Freemasonry between black lodges and white and how, unlike French lodges, women are ineligible to become Masons in the U.S. - Reveals the factors that have resulted in shrinking Masonic enrollment in America and explores the revitalization work done by the Grand Lodge of California Freemasonry bears the imprint of the society in which it exists, and Freemasonry in North America is no exception. While keeping close ties to French lodges until 1913, American Freemasonry was also deeply influenced by the experiences of many early American political leaders, leading to distinctive differences from European lodges. Offering an unobstructed view of the American system and its strengths and failings, Alain de Keghel, an elder of the Grand Orient de France and, since 1999, a lifetime member of the Scottish Rite Research Society (Southern U.S. jurisdiction), examines the history of Freemasonry in the United States from the colonial era to the Revolutionary War to the rise of the Scottish branch onward. He reveals the special relationship between the French Masonic hero, the Marquis de Lafayette, and the Founding Fathers, especially George Washington and Benjamin Franklin, including French Freemasonry's role in the American Revolution. He also explores Franklin's Masonic membership, including how he was Elder of the lodge of the Nine Sisters in Paris. The author investigates the racial split in American Freemasonry between black lodges and white and how, unlike French lodges, women are ineligible to become Masons in the U.S. He examines how American Freemasonry has remained deeply religious across the centuries and forbids discussion of religious or social issues in its lodges, unlike some branches of French Freemasonry, which removed belief in God as a prerequisite for membership in 1877 and whose lodges operate in some respects as philosophical debating societies. Revealing the factors that have resulted in shrinking Masonic enrollment in America, the author explores the revitalization work done by the Grand Lodge of California and sounds the call to make Freemasonry and its principles relevant to America once again.
An in-depth history of Rosicrucianism, its key members, and their roles in the formation and settling of America- Explores Sir Francis Bacon and Dr. John Dee's deep influence on England's colonization of America as well as the Rosicrucian influence on the Founding Fathers and on cities such as Philadelphia and Williamsburg - Explains how Bacon was the author of many anonymous Rosicrucian texts and how he envisioned America as the "New Atlantis" - Reveals the connections of the Order of the Rosy Cross to the Knights of the Golden Circle and to the Georgia Guidestones Dr. John Dee and his polymath prot g Sir Francis Bacon were the most influential men in the court of Queen Elizabeth I, part of an elite group with invisible control throughout Europe. And, as Steven Sora reveals, not only were they key members of the Rosicrucians, they were the driving force behind England's colonization of the New World and the eventual establishment of the United States. From Avalon in Newfoundland to New England to Pennsylvania and Virginia, Sora shows how Bacon and Dee's Rosicrucian impact is felt throughout North America. He details Bacon's possible authorship of the anonymous Rosicrucian texts of the early 1600s, his connections with Sir Walter Raleigh's School of Night, and the origins of Rosicrucianism in Bacon's Order of the Helmet. He explains how Bacon envisioned America as the New Atlantis, a utopia where liberty and freedom of learning prevailed--a key tenet of the "Invisible College" of the Rosicrucian Order--and how Dee convinced the Queen that England had rightful claims in the New World by drawing on legends of both King Arthur and Welsh Prince Madoc voyaging West to America. Sora looks at Rosicrucian influences on the Founding Fathers and earliest settlers of America, such as Washington, Franklin, and William Penn of Pennsylvania, on the American Revolution, and on American colonies, such as the Williamsburg colony. He details how Penn invited Rosicrucians to Philadelphia and how the city's layout follows esoteric principles, including a direct reference to Bacon's New Atlantis. Moving into the 1800s and beyond, he reveals how a handful of Rosicrucians served as the Inner Sanctum of the Knights of the Golden Circle and how Rosicrucians are behind the Georgia Guidestones, carved granite monoliths with messages in ancient languages. Providing a thorough and expansive view of Rosicrucianism, its occult origins, and its deep imprint on America, Sora shows how this secret society still continues to exert invisible influence on the modern world.
An exploration of the influence of secret societies on the formative documents and symbols of the United States- Reveals the Founding Fathers' spiritual vision for America as encoded in the Great Seal - Traces the influence of the Iroquois League of Nations upon the Constitution - Exposes the deep connections the Founding Fathers had with the Freemasons and other secret societies All children growing up in America learn who the Founding Fathers were. Most, however, never learn of the founders' connections to the Freemasons, the Rosicrucians, and other esoteric orders. In Founding Fathers, Secret Societies Robert Hieronimus investigates these important connections and how their influence can be traced throughout our most significant national documents and symbols, especially the Great Seal. He reveals in detail how the reverse of the Great Seal--which appears on the back of the one-dollar bill--is a blueprint that conveys the secret destiny of America. By understanding the kabbalistic meaning of the Great Seal's reverse, he shows how our current era presents unique opportunities for the fulfillment of our Founding Fathers' spiritual vision.
A comprehensive look at the life of Elias Ashmole, who represents the historic missing link between operative and symbolic Freemasonry- Explores the true role of occult and magical studies in the genesis of modern science - Explains the full meaning of the term magus, which Ashmole exemplified Elias Ashmole (1617-1692) was the first to record a personal account of initiation into Accepted Freemasonry. His writings help solve the debate between operative and "speculative" origins of Accepted Freemasonry, demonstrating that symbolic Freemasonry existed within the Masonic trade bodies. Ashmole was one of the leading intellectual luminaries of his time: a founding member of the Royal Society, a fellowship and later academy of natural philosophers and scientists; alchemist; astrological advisor to the king; and the creator of the world's first public museum. While Isaac Newton regarded him as an inspiration, Ashmole has been ignored by many conventional historians. Tobias Churton's compelling portrait of Ashmole offers a perfect illustration of the true Renaissance figure--the magus. As opposed to the alienated position of his post-Cartesian successors, the magus occupied a place at the heart of Renaissance spiritual, intellectual, and scientific life. Churton shows Ashmole to be part of the ferment of the birth of modern science, a missing link between operative and symbolic Freemasonry, and a vital transmitter of esoteric thought when the laws of science were first taking hold. He was a man who moved with facility between the powers of earth and the active symbols of heaven.
An expose of the dark and critical role secret societies play within the ruling families in America and their influence on American democracy, current events, and world history.- Reveals the enormous influence secret societies still have on contemporary American life. - Shows how the secret Masonic cells that smuggled in the democratic ideals inspiring the American Revolution also enabled the future elite of the new society to build huge fortunes. Elite and secret societies have always been a major force in the history of Western civilization. The alliances formed in secret societies such as the Knights Templar, the Knights of Christ, and the Freemasons transcended patriotism and religious beliefs and had a powerful influence on the establishment of the United States of America. While these secret associations of merchants, smugglers, occultists, gamblers, spies, and slavers succeeded in freeing the United States from foreign domination, the dark side is that the elite used their secret connections to further their own wealth and power. These secret cells did not hesitate to sponsor the assassination of a president and even attempted to break up the union on several occasions when it was deemed expedient. From the Sons of Liberty and the Essex Junto to the Ku Klux Klan, secret societies have played critical roles in building the fortunes of America's elite. Now Steven Sora reveals in alarming detail how secretive societies continue to wield power even today as organizations such as Yale's Skull & Bones unite America's modern ruling families as strongly as Masonic Lodges once connected the Astors, Livingstons, and Roosevelts. Their immense power and wealth allow this elite to control America to an even greater degree than the Templars once dominated Europe.
The history of black Freemasonry from Boston and Philadelphia in the late 1700s through the Civil War to the Civil Rights Movement- Examines the letters of Prince Hall, legendary founder of the first black lodge - Reveals how many of the most influential jazz musicians of the 20th century were also Masons, including Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, and Nat King Cole - Explores the origins of the Civil Rights Movement within black Freemasonry and the roles played by Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois When the first Masonic lodges opened in Paris in the early 18th century their membership included traders, merchants, musketeers, clergymen, and women--both white and black. This was not the case in the United States where black Freemasons were not eligible for membership in existing lodges. For this reason the first official charter for an exclusively black lodge--the Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Massachusetts--was granted by the Grand Lodge of England rather than any American chapter. Through privileged access to archives kept by Grand Lodges, Masonic libraries, and museums in both the United States and Europe, respected Freemasonry historian C cile R vauger traces the history of black Freemasonry from Boston and Philadelphia in the late 1700s through the Abolition Movement and the Civil War to the genesis of the Civil Rights Movement in the early 1900s up through the 1960s. She opens with a look at Prince Hall, legendary founder and the chosen namesake when black American lodges changed from "African Lodges" to "Prince Hall Lodges" in the early 1800s. She reveals how the Masonic principles of mutual aid and charity were more heavily emphasized in the black lodges and especially during the reconstruction period following the Civil War. She explores the origins of the Civil Rights Movement within black Freemasonry and the roles played by Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois, founder of the NAACP, among others. Looking at the deep connections between jazz and Freemasonry, the author reveals how many of the most influential jazz musicians of the 20th century were also Masons, including Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Nat King Cole, Eubie Blake, Cab Calloway, and Paul Robeson. Unveiling the deeply social role at the heart of black Freemasonry, R vauger shows how the black lodges were instrumental in helping American blacks transcend the horrors of slavery and prejudice, achieve higher social status, and create their own solid spiritually based social structure, which in some cities arose prior to the establishment of black churches.
Creativity, resourcefulness and a strong vision of equality in America helped Black men and women to establish their own organizations despite the continuing legacy and stigma of the slavery period. Frontiers International, the oldest Black community serv
Qualitative research encompasses all forms of field research performed with qualitative data, that is, data that is presented in non-numeric form. Purely quantitative organizational researchers should find Advances in Qualitative Organizational Research valuable as a source of grounded insights and testable hypotheses. The need for an annual series such as this grows out of the absence of a periodic outlet offering the physical space per manuscript required to write a meaningfully deep description of qualitative data and, at the same time, a sufficiently detailed theoretical interpretation and conceptual conclusion.
Takes a behind-the-scenes look at Yale's mysterious society, the Order of the Skull and Bones, and its prominent members, numbering among them Tafts, Rockefellers, Pillsburys, and Bushes. This book reveals that far from being a campus fraternity, the society is more concerned with the success of its members in the post-collegiate world.